Reference Resources

Bilingual dictionary: This uses translation from the target language into another language for definitions and examples. See monolingual dictionary.

Consult: To get advice or information from someone or something, e.g. a dictionary or grammar book.

Headword: A word whose meaning is explained in a dictionary. It usually appears in bold at the top of a dictionary entry.

Monolingual dictionary: This uses only the target language for headwords, definitions, examples etc. See bilingual dictionary.

Phonemic chart: A poster or large diagram of the phonemic symbols.

Reference materials, resources: The materials that teachers and students use to check information, e.g. grammar books, dictionaries or CD ROMs.

Teaching materials and aids

Activity book: see book.

Adapt (material): To change a text or other material, so that it is suitable to use with a particular class.

Audio script: see tape script.

Authentic material: Written or spoken texts which a first language speaker would read or listen to. They may be taken from newspapers, radio etc. The language is not made easier.

Board game: A game played by two or more players on a board and often using dice. Teachers can use these for controlled language practice.

Book: An activity book or workbook has extra practice and is often used for homework. It usually accompanies a coursebook. A coursebook or textbook is used regularly by students in the class. It generally contains grammar, vocabulary and skills work. A coursebook unit is a chapter of a coursebook. A teacher’s book accompanies the coursebook, and contains teaching ideas, tape scripts and answers to coursebook activities.

Brochure: see leaflet.

Chart: A drawing or graph that can be placed on the classroom wall and can show information such as irregular verb forms or prepositions.

Coursebook: see book.

Coursebook unit: see book.

Crossword puzzle: A word game in which students complete a grid. Students write the answers to definitions in the squares on the grid. It is often used to revise vocabulary.

Dialogue: A conversation between two people.

Dice: Small blocks of plastic or wood with six sides and a different number of spots on each side. They are used in board games.

Exploit (material): To use material for a particular purpose.

Flashcard: A card with words, sentences or pictures on it. A teacher can use these to explain a situation, tell a story, teach vocabulary etc.

Flipchart: A pad of large sheets of paper fixed to a stand, which teachers use for presenting information to the class.

Graded reader: A story book with language that has been made easier for students.

Graph: A drawing that uses a line or lines to show how two or more things are related to each other.

Grid: A pattern of straight lines that cross each other to make squares.

Handout, worksheet: A piece of paper with exercises, activities or tasks on it that a teacher gives to students for a range of reasons during a class.

Language laboratory: A room in a school where students can practise language by listening to tapes and by recording themselves speaking.

Leaflet, brochure: A piece of printed paper that gives information or advertises something. This is one example of realia.

Learning centre: see self-access centre.

Overhead projector (OHP): A piece of equipment that makes images appear on a wall or screen. It can be used in a classroom instead of a whiteboard or blackboard.

Overhead transparency (OHT): The plastic sheet a teacher can write on and use on an overhead projector (OHP).

Puppet: A model of a person or animal that a teacher can move by putting their hand inside it, which is often used when teaching young learners.

Realia: Real objects such as menus, timetables and leaflets that can easily be brought into the classroom for a range of purposes.

Resources: see teaching aids, reference materials, resources, learning resources.

Rubric: Written instructions for a task.

Self-access centre, learning centre: A place with learning resources such as books, computers and cassettes where students can study by themselves.

Supplementary material: The books and other materials which teachers can use in addition to a coursebook, e.g. pronunciation practice materials.

Tapescript, audio script, transcript: The written version of the words students hear when doing a listening activity. These can often be found in a teacher’s book.

Teachers book: see book.

Teaching aids: Any materials or resources a teacher uses in the classroom, e.g. OHP, charts. See realia and learning resources.

Textbook: see book.

Transcript: see tapescript.

Video clip: Part of a video that can be used in class.

Visual (aid): A picture or a diagram that can help teachers illustrate meaning.

Workbook: see book.

Worksheet: see handout.


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